Objective: Literature review about pediatric anti-NMDAR encephalitis after reporting four patients hospitalized at a tertiary children’s hospital.
Methods: Four patients (age 9, 16, 4, 2) with neuropsychiatric symptoms at a tertiary children ’ s hospital between Jan 1, 2011 to Dec 31, 2016 were identified though a query of hospital billing data. Diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of IgG anti-GluN1 antibodies in either serum or in Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF).
Results: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are very common,often interfering with care. Psychiatry were consulted in 3 cases.
Conclusions: Antipsychotics are commonly used to treat aggression, psychosis and delirium. Benzodiazepines could be helpful for catatonia and aggression but could worsen delirium. Clonidine could be helpful for agitation,insomnia, and/or autonomic instability. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) could be helpful for malignant catatonia.